A brain injury is any trauma to the scalp, skull or brain. Head trauma or head injury refers to any accidental injury to the head which often is associated with brain injury. Head trauma ranges from mild to severe, potentially life-threatening injuries. Head trauma can occur in persons of any age and is a frequent reason for paediatric hospitalisation.
Severe cases of traumatic brain injury are broken down into two types: closed and penetrating. Closed TBI refers to an injury caused by the movement of the brain inside the skull, which may come from falls, a car accident or being struck by an object. Penetrating TBI is an injury caused by a foreign object entering the skull from, for example, a gunshot or being struck by a sharp object.